ADHD | BlackDoctor | Page 2

    ADHD

    According to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical
    Manual of Mental Disorders
    2 (DSM-IV-TR), there are three
    patterns of behavior that indicate ADHD. People with ADHD may show several signs
    of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive
    and impulsive far more than others of their age. Or they may show all three
    types of behavior. This means that there are three subtypes of ADHD recognized
    by professionals. These are the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
    type
    (that does not show significant inattention); the
    predominantly inattentive type (that does not show significant
    hyperactive-impulsive behavior) sometimes called ADD—an outdated term for this
    entire disorder; and the combined type (that displays both
    inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms).

    Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

    Hyperactive children always seem to be “on the go” or
    constantly in motion. They dash around touching or playing with whatever is in
    sight, or talk incessantly. Sitting still at dinner or during a school lesson or
    story can be a difficult task. They squirm and fidget in their seats or roam
    around the room. Or they may wiggle their feet, touch everything, or noisily tap
    their pencil. Hyperactive teenagers or adults may feel internally restless. They
    often report needing to stay busy and may try to do several things at once.

    Impulsive children seem unable to curb their immediate
    reactions or think before they act. They will often blurt out inappropriate
    comments, display their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for
    the later consequences of their conduct. Their impulsivity may make it hard for
    them to wait for things they want or to take their turn in games. They may grab
    a toy from another child or hit when they’re upset. Even as teenagers or adults,
    they may impulsively choose to do things that have an immediate but small payoff
    rather than engage in activities that may take more effort yet provide much
    greater but delayed rewards.

    Some signs of hyperactivity-impulsivity are:

    • Feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or feet, or squirming while
      seated
    • Running, climbing, or leaving a seat in situations where sitting or quiet
      behavior is expected
    • Blurting out answers before hearing the whole question
    • Having difficulty waiting in line or taking turns.

    Inattention

    Children who are inattentive have a hard time keeping their minds on any one
    thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. If they are doing
    something they really enjoy, they have no trouble paying attention. But focusing
    deliberate, conscious attention to organizing and completing a task or learning
    something new is difficult.

    Homework is particularly hard for these children. They will forget to write
    down an assignment, or leave it at school. They will forget to bring a book
    home, or bring the wrong one. The homework, if finally finished, is full of
    errors and erasures. Homework is often accompanied by frustration for both
    parent and child.

    The DSM-IV-TR gives these signs of inattention:

    • Often becoming easily distracted by irrelevant sights and sounds
    • Often failing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakes
    • Rarely following instructions carefully and completely losing or forgetting
      things like toys, or pencils, books, and tools needed for a task

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