Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, or EPI, is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas.
What is the pancreas?
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, and a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.
Pancreatic insufficiency is when the pancreas is not producing enough enzymes for proper digestion. Pancreatic insufficiency typically occurs as a result of progressive pancreatic damage that may be caused by recurrent acute pancreatitis or by chronic pancreatitis due to a variety of conditions.”
Common symptoms of pancreatic insufficiency include malabsorption, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies and weight loss. Other symptoms are steatorrhea (loose, fatty, foul-smelling stools), gas and bloating, pain, abdominal tenderness, loss of appetite or feeling of fullness, and diarrhea. Those with pancreatic insufficiency also may be prone to bruising or suffer from bone pain, muscle cramps or night blindness.
Severe pancreatic insufficiency occurs in such diseases as cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis and surgeries of the gastrointestinal system. Certain GI diseases, such as stomach ulcers, celiac disease and Crohn’s disease, and autoimmune disorders, such as system lupus erythematosus, may contribute to the development of pancreatic insufficiency.