A reading of 140/90 mm Hg or more is considered high, and if it’s between 120/80 and 139/89, you may still be at risk and should be taking steps to prevent the development of hypertension.
How to check: Your doctor will check your blood pressure at every visit, but you can also buy a home blood pressure monitor, and studies have shown that people who check their blood pressure at home keep it under tighter control. But home monitoring should never replace the regular checks by your doctor or nurse—or visit a pharmacy, many of which have free-to-use blood pressure machines.
How often to check: Ask your doctor how often you should have your blood pressure (BP) measured. You can request a BP check every time you go to the office.
5. Your triglycerides.
Triglycerides are made from the fats and carbohydrates you eat, which are converted into a form that can be stored in fat cells. Triglycerides are also released from fat tissue when the body needs extra energy between meals. It’s normal to have some triglycerides in your bloodstream, but high levels are linked to coronary artery disease—especially in women. When you have high triglycerides paired with low HDLs, your risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome may be increased. A normal triglyceride reading is less than 1.7 mmol/l. Your doctor will advise you how often you should have your triglycerides checked.
6. Your morning pulse rate.
Your pulse is the number of times your heart beats in one minute. Regular monitoring of your resting pulse first thing in the morning will help you to see if your workouts are strengthening your heart. For example, a normal resting pulse rate is 60 to 90 beats per minute. People who are fit tend to have lower resting pulse rates because their heart muscles are in good shape. But if you don’t exercise regularly and your heart rate is lower than the normal range, tell your doctor—it could be a sign of heart disease.
How to check: You’ll need a clock or watch with a second hand. The pulse is best measured at the wrist or neck, where an artery runs close to the surface of the skin. To measure the pulse at your wrist, place your index and middle fingers on the underside of the opposite wrist. Press firmly with the flat of your fingers until you feel the pulse. Find a neck pulse either side of your Adam’s apple: just press your fingers into the hollows wither side of your windpipe. Once you’ve found your pulse, count the beats for 15 seconds and multiply by four—this will give your pulse rate in beats per minute.
How often to check: Take your pulse once a month, in the morning before you get out of bed. To check if your exercise program is working, assess your maximum pulse just after exercise and note how long it takes to return to its normal resting rate—the time interval should reduce as you get fitter.