Endometriosis occurs when tissue like that which lines the inside of uterus grows outside the uterus, usually on the surfaces of organs in the pelvic and abdominal areas, in places that it is not supposed to grow.
The word endometriosis comes from the word “endometrium”—endo means “inside” and metrium (pronounced mee-tree-um) means “mother.” Health care providers call the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus (where a mother carries her baby) the endometrium.
Health care providers may call areas of endometriosis by different names, such as implants, lesions, or nodules.
In what places, outside of the uterus, do areas of endometriosis grow?
Most endometriosis is found in the pelvic cavity:
- On or under the ovaries
- Behind the uterus
- On the tissues that hold the uterus in place
- On the bowels or bladder
In extremely rare cases, endometriosis areas can grow in the lungs or other parts of the body.
What are the symptoms of endometriosis?
One of the most common symptoms of endometriosis is pain, mostly in the abdomen, lower back, and pelvic areas. The amount of pain a woman feels is not linked to how much endometriosis she has. Some women have no pain even though their endometriosis is extensive, meaning that the affected areas are large, or that there is scarring. Some women, on the other hand, have severe pain even though they have only a few small areas of endometriosis.
General symptoms of endometriosis can include (but are not limited to):
- Extremely painful (or disabling) menstrual cramps; pain may get worse over time
- Chronic pelvic pain (includes lower back pain and pelvic pain)
- Pain during or after sex
- Intestinal pain
- Painful bowel movements or painful urination during menstrual periods
- Heavy menstrual periods
- Premenstrual spotting or bleeding between periods
In addition, women who are diagnosed with endometriosis may have gastrointestinal symptoms that resemble a bowel disorder, as well as fatigue.
Who gets endometriosis?
Endometriosis can affect any menstruating woman, from the time of her first period to menopause, regardless of whether or not she has children, her race or ethnicity, or her socio-economic status. Endometriosis can sometimes persist after menopause; or hormones taken for menopausal symptoms may cause the symptoms of endometriosis to continue.
Current estimates place the number of women with endometriosis between 2 percent and 10 percent of women of reproductive age. But, it’s important to note that these are only estimates, and that such statistics can vary widely.