Children with ADHD also wear out friendships. Their behavior can be so thoughtless and aggravating, even exhausting, that other children start to avoid them. They miss usual social cues and often blurt out what they are thinking whether or not it is at all appropriate or tactful. Usually good-hearted and wanting friends, they are often mystified by others’ negative reactions to them. It is important to understand that children with ADHD are not trying to be annoying or malicious. In fact, they often seem surprised and embarrassed when their behavior results in rejection by others.
Evaluation for ADHD includes a family history, a medical exam, psychological testing, and, very importantly, a compilation of ratings on paper and pencil behavioral scales completed by parents and teachers who know the child well. A skilled neuropsychologist will recognize patterns in all of these data that generally point to a diagnosis of ADHD.
Treatment Of ADHD
It is generally believed that children with ADHD benefit most from a multidisciplinary approach that comes at the problem in many ways simultaneously. On the medical front, stimulants such as Cylert (premoline), Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine), and Ritalin (methylphenidate) are the medications most often used to treat ADHD in the United States; antidepressants are sometimes prescribed as well. These medications increase activity in the frontal lobes of the brain where impulsivity is managed.
Parents and teachers of children with ADHD must be educated about how to best manage their particular child. Many adults make the mistake of getting into power struggles with these children, trying to control them with harsh disciplinary methods. Children with ADHD really can’t help being the way they are. Yelling, scolding, nagging, and punishing will only make them feel and behave worse. Even more than most children, these children need clear and kind guidance, with an emphasis on what they are doing right.
Early identification of special services in the schools can be very helpful. These children do better is a less stimulating, more orderly environment. They benefit from small classes that are fairly quiet. Activities need to be short and focused, with many opportunities for small successes. Parents and teachers should ideally keep in close contact with each other, sharing what they find to be effective for the child in question.
Finally, physical activity can sometimes help children with ADHD channel some of their excessive energy. They tend to do better at individual sports like swim team, rock climbing, weight lifting, or figure skating. Team sports (where a great deal is going on at once) can sometimes be overstimulating and frustrating for these children.
The goal, of course, is for children with ADHD to get the most enjoyment, learning and growth from each day of their lives. With teaching, encouragement, and support, these children can learn to monitor and manage their symptoms and move on with life.