Cold

    SYMPTOMS

    Symptoms of the common cold usually begin 2 to 3 days after infection and often include

    • Mucus buildup in your nose
    • Difficulty breathing through your nose
    • Swelling of your sinuses
    • Sneezing
    • Sore throat
    • Cough
    • Headache

    Fever is usually slight but can climb to 102 degrees Fahrenheit in infants and young children. Cold symptoms can last from 2 to 14 days, but like most people, you’ll probably recover in a week. If symptoms occur often or last much longer than 2 weeks, you might have an allergy rather than a cold.

    Colds occasionally can lead to bacterial infections of your middle ear or sinuses, requiring treatment with antibiotics. High fever, significantly swollen glands, severe sinus pain, and a cough that produces mucus, may indicate a complication or more serious illness requiring a visit to your healthcare provider.

    TRANSMISSION

    You can get infected by cold viruses by either of these methods.

    • Touching your skin or environmental surfaces, such as telephones and stair rails, that have cold germs on them and then touching your eyes or nose
    • Inhaling drops of mucus full of cold germs from the air

    TREATMENT

    There is no cure for the common cold, but you can get relief from your cold symptoms by

    • Resting in bed
    • Drinking plenty of fluids
    • Gargling with warm salt water or using throat sprays or lozenges for a scratchy or sore throat
    • Using petroleum jelly for a raw nose
    • Taking aspirin or acetaminophen, Tylenol, for example, for headache or fever

    A word of caution: Several studies have linked aspirin use to the development of Reye’s syndrome in children recovering from flu or chickenpox. Reye’s syndrome is a rare but serious illness that usually occurs in children between the ages of 3 and 12 years. It can affect all organs of the body but most often the brain and liver. While most children who survive an episode of Reye’s syndrome do not suffer any lasting consequences, the illness can lead to permanent brain damage or death. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children and teenagers not be given aspirin or medicine containing aspirin when they have any viral illness such as the common cold.

    Over-the-counter cold medicines

    Nonprescription cold remedies, including decongestants and cough suppressants, may relieve some of your cold symptoms but will not prevent or even shorten the length of your cold. Moreover, because most of these medicines have some side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, insomnia, or upset stomach, you should take them with care.

    Over-the counter-antihistamines

    Nonprescription antihistamines may give you some relief from symptoms such as runny nose and watery eyes which are commonly associated with colds.

    Antibiotics

    Never take antibiotics to treat a cold because antibiotics do not kill viruses. You should use these prescription medicines only if you have a rare bacterial complication, such as sinusitis or ear infections. In addition, you should not use antibiotics “just in case” because they will not prevent bacterial infections.

    Steam

    Although inhaling steam may temporarily relieve symptoms of congestion, health experts have found that this approach is not an effective treatment.

    PREVENTION

    There are several ways you can keep yourself from getting a cold or passing one on to others

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