Endometriosis occurs when tissue like that which lines the inside of uterus grows outside the uterus, usually on the surfaces of organs in the pelvic and abdominal areas, in places that it is not supposed to grow.

The word endometriosis comes from the word “endometrium”—endo means “inside” and metrium (pronounced mee-tree-um) means “mother.” Health care providers call the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus (where a mother carries her baby) the endometrium.

Health care providers may call areas of endometriosis by different names, such as implants, lesions, or nodules.

In what places, outside of the uterus, do areas of endometriosis grow?

endometriosisMost endometriosis is found in the pelvic cavity:

  • On or under the ovaries
  • Behind the uterus
  • On the tissues that hold the uterus in place
  • On the bowels or bladder

In extremely rare cases, endometriosis areas can grow in the lungs or other parts of the body.

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

One of the most common symptoms of endometriosis is pain, mostly in the abdomen, lower back, and pelvic areas. The amount of pain a woman feels is not linked to how much endometriosis she has. Some women have no pain even though their endometriosis is extensive, meaning that the affected areas are large, or that there is scarring. Some women, on the other hand, have severe pain even though they have only a few small areas of endometriosis.

General symptoms of endometriosis can include (but are not limited to):

  • Extremely painful (or disabling) menstrual cramps; pain may get worse over time
  • Chronic pelvic pain (includes lower back pain and pelvic pain)
  • Pain during or after sex
  • Intestinal pain
  • Painful bowel movements or painful urination during menstrual periods
  • Heavy menstrual periods
  • Premenstrual spotting or bleeding between periods
  • Infertility

In addition, women who are diagnosed with endometriosis may have gastrointestinal symptoms that resemble a bowel disorder, as well as fatigue.

Who gets endometriosis?

Endometriosis can affect any menstruating woman, from the time of her first period to menopause, regardless of whether or not she has children, her race or ethnicity, or her socio-economic status. Endometriosis can sometimes persist after menopause; or hormones taken for menopausal symptoms may cause the symptoms of endometriosis to continue.

Current estimates place the number of women with endometriosis between 2 percent and 10 percent of women of reproductive age. But, it’s important to note that these are only estimates, and that such statistics can vary widely.

Does having endometriosis mean I’ll be infertile or unable to have children?

woman walkingAbout 30 percent to 40 percent of women with endometriosis are infertile, making it one of the top three causes of female infertility. Some women don’t find out that they have endometriosis until they have trouble getting pregnant.

If you have endometriosis and want to get pregnant, your health care provider may suggest that you have unprotected sex for six months to a year before you have any treatment for the endometriosis.

The relationship between endometriosis and infertility is an active area of research. Some studies suggest that the condition may change the uterus so it does not accept an embryo. Other work explores whether endometriosis changes the egg, or whether endometriosis gets in the way of moving a fertilized egg to the uterus.

What causes endometriosis?

We don’t know the exact cause of endometriosis. Right now, a number of theories try to explain the disease.

Endometriosis may result from something called “retrograde menstrual flow,” in which some of the tissue that a woman sheds during her period flows into her pelvis. While most women who get their periods have some retrograde menstrual flow, not all of these women have endometriosis. Researchers are trying to uncover what other factors might cause the tissue to grow in some women, but not in others.

Another theory about the cause of endometriosis involves genes. This disease could be inherited, or it could result from genetic errors, making some women more likely than others to develop the condition. If researchers can find a specific gene or genes related to endometriosis in some women, genetic testing might allow health care providers to detect endometriosis much earlier, or even prevent it from happening at all.

Researchers are exploring other possible causes, as well. Estrogen, a hormone involved in the female reproductive cycle, appears to promote the growth of endometriosis. Therefore, some research is looking into endometriosis as a disease of the endocrine system, the body’s system of glands, hormones, and other secretions. Or, it may be that a woman’s immune system does not remove the menstrual fluid in the pelvic cavity properly, or the chemicals made by areas of endometriosis may irritate or promote growth of more areas. So, other researchers are studying the role of the immune system in either stimulating, or reacting to endometriosis.

Other research focuses on determining whether environmental agents, such as exposure to man-made chemicals, cause endometriosis. Additional research is trying to understand what, if any, factors influence the course of the disease. We just don’t have answers on the causes yet.

Another important area of NICHD research is the search for endometriosis markers. These markers are substances made by or in response to endometriosis that health care providers can measure in the blood or urine. If markers are found, health care providers could diagnose endometriosis by testing a woman’s blood or urine, which might reduce the need for surgery.

How do I know that I have endometriosis?

Currently, health care providers use a number of tests for endometriosis. Sometimes, they will use imaging tests to produce a “picture” of the inside of the body, which allows them to locate larger endometriosis areas, such as nodules or cysts. The two most common imaging tests are ultrasound, a machine that uses sound waves to make the picture, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a machine that uses magnets and radio waves to make the picture.

The only way to know for sure that you have the condition is by having surgery. The most common type of surgery is called laparoscopy. In this procedure, the surgeon inflates the abdomen slightly with a harmless gas. After making a small cut in the abdomen, the surgeon uses a small viewing

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction, sometimes called “impotence,” is the repeated inability
to get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. The word
“impotence” may also be used to describe other problems that interfere with
sexual intercourse and reproduction, such as lack of sexual desire and problems
with ejaculation or orgasm. Using the term erectile dysfunction makes it clear
that those other problems are not involved.

Erectile dysfunction, or ED, can be a total inability to achieve erection, an
inconsistent ability to do so, or a tendency to sustain only brief erections.
These variations make defining ED and estimating its incidence difficult.
Estimates range from 15 million to 30 million, depending on the definition used.
According to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), for every
1,000 men in the United States, 7.7 physician office visits were made for ED in
1985. By 1999, that rate had nearly tripled to 22.3. The increase happened
gradually, presumably as treatments such as vacuum devices and injectable drugs
became more widely available and discussing erectile function became accepted.
Perhaps the most publicized advance was the introduction of the oral drug
sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in March 1998. NAMCS data on new drugs show an
estimated 2.6 million mentions of Viagra at physician office visits in 1999, and
one-third of those mentions occurred during visits for a diagnosis other than

In older men, ED usually has a physical cause, such as disease, injury, or
side effects of drugs. Any disorder that causes injury to the nerves or impairs
blood flow in the penis has the potential to cause ED. Incidence increases with
age: About 5 percent of 40-year-old men and between 15 and 25 percent of
65-year-old men experience ED. But it is not an inevitable part of aging.

ED is treatable at any age, and awareness of this fact has been growing. More
men have been seeking help and returning to normal sexual activity because of
improved, successful treatments for ED. Urologists, who specialize in problems
of the urinary tract, have traditionally treated ED; however, urologists
accounted for only 25 percent of Viagra mentions in 1999.

How does an erection occur?

The penis contains two chambers called the corpora cavernosa, which run the
length of the organ (see figure 1). A spongy tissue fills the chambers. The
corpora cavernosa are surrounded by a membrane, called the tunica albuginea. The
spongy tissue contains smooth muscles, fibrous tissues, spaces, veins, and
arteries. The urethra, which is the channel for urine and ejaculate, runs along
the underside of the corpora cavernosa and is surrounded by the corpus

Erection begins with sensory or mental stimulation, or both. Impulses from
the brain and local nerves cause the muscles of the corpora cavernosa to relax,
allowing blood to flow in and fill the spaces. The blood creates pressure in the
corpora cavernosa, making the penis expand. The tunica albuginea helps trap the
blood in the corpora cavernosa, thereby sustaining erection. When muscles in the
penis contract to stop the inflow of blood and open outflow channels, erection
is reversed.

Figure 1: Illustration of two penises

Figure 1. Arteries (top) and veins (bottom) penetrate
the long, filled cavities running the length of the penis—the corpora cavernosa
and the corpous sponglosum. Erection occurs when relaxed muscles allow the
corpora cavernosa to fill with excess blood fed by the arteries, while drainage
of blood through the veins is blocked.

What causes ED?

Since an erection requires a precise sequence of events, ED can occur when
any of the events is disrupted. The sequence includes nerve impulses in the
brain, spinal column, and area around the penis, and response in muscles,
fibrous tissues, veins, and arteries in and near the corpora cavernosa.

Damage to nerves, arteries, smooth muscles, and fibrous tissues, often as a
result of disease, is the most common cause of ED. Diseases—such as diabetes,
kidney disease, chronic alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis,
vascular disease, and neurologic disease—account for about 70 percent of ED
cases. Between 35 and 50 percent of men with diabetes experience ED.

Also, surgery (especially radical prostate and bladder surgery for cancer)
can injure nerves and arteries near the penis, causing ED. Injury to the penis,
spinal cord, prostate, bladder, and pelvis can lead to ED by harming nerves,
smooth muscles, arteries, and fibrous tissues of the corpora cavernosa.

In addition, many common medicines—blood pressure drugs, antihistamines,
antidepressants, tranquilizers, appetite suppressants, and cimetidine (an ulcer
drug)—can produce ED as a side effect.

Experts believe that psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, guilt,
depression, low self-esteem, and fear of sexual failure cause 10 to 20 percent
of ED cases. Men with a physical cause for ED frequently experience the same
sort of psychological reactions (stress, anxiety, guilt, depression).

Other possible causes are smoking, which affects blood flow in veins and
arteries, and hormonal abnormalities, such as not enough testosterone.

How is ED diagnosed?

Patient History

Medical and sexual histories help define the degree and nature of ED. A
medical history can disclose diseases that lead to ED, while a simple recounting
of sexual activity might distinguish among problems with sexual desire,
erection, ejaculation, or orgasm.

Using certain prescription or illegal drugs can suggest a chemical cause,
since drug effects account for 25 percent of ED cases. Cutting back on or
substituting certain medications can often alleviate the problem.

Physical Examination

A physical examination can give clues to systemic problems. For example, if
the penis is not sensitive to touching, a problem in the nervous system may be
the cause. Abnormal secondary sex characteristics, such as hair pattern or
breast enlargement, can point to hormonal problems, which would mean that the
endocrine system is involved. The examiner might discover a circulatory problem
by observing decreased pulses in the wrist or ankles. And unusual
characteristics of the penis itself could suggest the source of the problem—for
example, a penis that bends or curves when erect could be the result of
Peyronie’s disease.

Laboratory Tests

Several laboratory tests can help diagnose ED. Tests for systemic diseases
include blood counts, urinalysis, lipid profile, and measurements of creatinine
and liver enzymes. Measuring the amount of free testosterone in the blood can
yield information about problems with the endocrine system and is indicated
especially in patients with decreased sexual desire.

Other Tests

Monitoring erections that occur during sleep (nocturnal penile tumescence)
can help rule out certain psychological causes of ED. Healthy men have
involuntary erections during sleep. If nocturnal erections do not occur, then ED
is likely to have a physical rather than psychological cause. Tests of nocturnal
erections are not completely reliable, however. Scientists have not standardized
such tests and have not determined when they should be applied for best

Psychosocial Examination

A psychosocial examination, using an inter