Condom Use Higher Among Blacks, But Still Not Enough
The Indiana University National Sex Study is the latest national survey to refute the theory that high HIV rates among African-Americans result from riskier behavior. This study shows that in fact, African-Americans are more likely than other ethnic groups to use condoms, as well as the most likely to be tested for HIV. And condom-use rates among Black teenagers were the highest of any demographic–an incredible 92 percent for males and 100 percent for females the last time they engaged in sex.
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“I like to think some of this is demonstrative of a public health success,” says Michael Reece, Ph.D., M.P.H., the director of the Indiana University Center for Sexual Health Promotion, and an author of the study. “After a decade of education, youth are getting the message. And people are finding condoms at diverse venues. Maybe we’ve had a breakthrough in public health.”
A Dramatic Difference in Condom Use
After a promising start, though, condom use sharply declines in all racial groups after age 18.
“Generally, kids just starting to have sex use condoms. Then they don’t use a condom one time and nothing happens, and they keep taking more risk,” says Kathy A. Woodward, M.D., director of the Adolescent Health Center at Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C.
After adolescence, a dramatic difference exists between what Black men and women report about their condom use. For example, Black women ages 18 to 24 tell researchers that 55.3 percent of their sexual encounters involve condoms. Black men in that same age range report that they use condoms in only 20.5 percent of their sexual encounters.
By the time Black women reach their 40s, less than 25 percent of their sexual encounters include condoms. “Most women use more effective methods of contraception when they get in more consistent relationships,” Dr. Woodward notes. The proportion of women using condoms then ticks upward in the 50s (32.2 percent) and 60s (28.9 percent).
Black men report that their condom use rises until age 50, with condoms involved in 41.3 percent of sexual encounters among Black men ages 40 to 49. The trend is opposite among White men, whose condom use decreases as they age.
What accounts for the wide variation in men’s and women’s reported condom use?
Data about numbers of sexual partners were not collected by his survey, but Dr. Reece says, “Part of this is perhaps explainable by young men having more partners overall than women.” And the health-care establishment traditionally serves young women better than young men.
“You see higher rates of STI [sexually transmitted infection] testing among young women compared to young men, and they start to receive routine gynecological care when men don’t really have any regular screenings,” Dr. Reece says. “Health providers encourage safer-sex practices among women when they start these exams, which is earlier than when men start to receive the same messages.”
Dr. Woodward also suspects that some of the differences can be attributed to men’s non-monogamy. “If you ask men if they use condoms with all partners, they don’t use them with steady girlfriends,” she says.
Perhaps another elephant is in the room: The study didn’t ask the race of the participants’ sexual partners.
Good, But Not Good Enough
No matter how you slice it, even the highest condom rates aren’t high enough for a community entrenched in an HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Dr. Reece observes that while young Black men’s 20.5 percent rate of reported condom use “may be considered a public health success, it means that four out of five aren’t using condoms. That’s a lot of unprotected intercourse.”
Though research shows that Blacks don’t engage in riskier behavior than other demographic groups, if you live in a community where more people have HIV, you’re more likely to have sex–or share a needle–with someone who has the virus than is someone who lives where few people are HIV positive. This is just one reason that experts expect one in 22 Black Americans to get HIV during their lifetime.
Fortunately, “more attention is being paid to certain zip codes,” says Kenyon Farrow, executive director of Queers for Economic Justice. “We have to think about what community-level work can further reduce vulnerability.”
Community groups and researchers have been focusing their efforts on high-risk communities of color for more than a decade. Farrow cites GMHC’s New York City “I Love My Boo” campaign, which targets MSM of color to help a high-risk demographic take ownership of staying healthy. And in September, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a pilot program to provide $30 million for testing and evaluation of those hardest hit by HIV, including Black Americans.
A. Toni Young, founder and executive director of the Washington, D.C.-based Community Education Group, stresses making it easy for people to wear condoms and know why they’re doing it. “It’s about consistency,” says Young, whose peer-to-peer prevention organization distributes 250,000 to 300,000 condoms annually in community centers, barber shops, day care centers and other community hubs nationwide. “And we as providers have to be consistent. What happens when a person goes to reach for the condoms and the receptacle’s empty? That person may be more likely to engage in unprotected sex.”
Visit the BlackDoctor.org HIV/AIDS center for more articles.
HBV & HIV
I sometimes like to think of HIV as a party virus. It likes to hang out with other viruses and microorganisms and people are often infected with many of HIV’s “friends”. Some of HIV’s party buddies include herpes simplex virus, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, syphilis, human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, and the hepatitis viruses (hepatitis B, C and some other types). The next couple articles will focus on the hepatitis viruses, starting with hepatitis B.
Hepatitis viruses are NOT related to each other. Hepatitis A, B and C are totally different viruses. They have different structures and the replicate differently. The only thing they have in common is that they attack the liver. But they even have different ways of damaging the liver. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) doesn’t actually destroy liver cells itself, but as the immune system attacks the infected cell, liver damage occurs. HBV infection is common with HIV infection because they are spread by similar means. Like HIV, HBV can be transmitted by sharing needles, sexual intercourse and from mother-to-child during pregnancy. Of the individuals in the US with HIV disease, 6-14% also have HBV infection, and worldwide, up to 4 million individuals may have HIV and HBV infection.
Most healthy adults (about 90%) and children (about 75%) are able to control and eliminate hepatitis B infection without medication. But if the person also has HIV infection, there is impaired immune function such that the percentage of individuals who can clear HBV infection is much smaller, so the infection becomes chronic, meaning it lingers around and continues to slowly cause liver damage.
The signs and symptoms in new infections (acute infection) include nausea and vomiting, fatigue, fever, pain in the area of the liver, and yellowing of the skin and/or eyes. But with persistent infection (chronic infection), there may not be any symptoms. Laboratory tests performed by your medical provider are needed to diagnose HBV.
Untreated HBV infection can cause liver cirrhosis, which may progress o liver cancer. However, HBV may be able to produce liver cancer even in patients who have not developed cirrhosis. What is cirrhosis? The liver is the body’s largest organ and it performs many critical functions related to the body’s metabolism, managing nutrients and clearing toxic compounds. It is a fleshy, pulpy organ that receives a lot of blood flow and is sort of spongy in texture. Think of the liver as a juicy ripe navel orange (yummy!). Now, take that orange and let it sit out on the counter for a couple weeks. Your juicy orange now becomes a hard, shrunken, dried-up husk that you would never want to eat. This is the liver with cirrhosis. The pulpy tissue has been transformed into a fibrous tissue with much less active tissue able to carry on the liver’s vital work. This means the liver’s important functions cannot be done and the patient’s health deteriorates. Further, the change in texture in the liver tissue changes the dynamics of blood flow through the organ and can damage. A liver biopsy is one of the best ways to determine how severely the liver is damaged. For this test, a tiny piece of tissue is collected from the liver through a minor surgical procedure, but there are other tests as well. If the patient happens to have HIV in addition to HBV (or hepatitis C), the liver progresses to cirrhosis much more quickly and there are higher rates of liver cancer. Suppressing HIV with medication is important in slowing down HBV.
Probably the best news for HIV patients and individuals at high risk for contracting HBV is that an effective vaccine has been available for about 25 years. Well, if this vaccine is so good, why not give it to everyone? Remember as we mentioned above, most healthy individuals are likely to effectively eliminate HBV infection if they contract it, so they don’t need a vaccine. For these individuals, there are antibodies generated against HBV that can be detected in the blood. So before vaccinating anyone, we must first check to see if they have antibodies, and if so, they are already protected against HBV and don’t need a vaccine. For individuals who don’t have antibodies, three vaccinations spaced over weeks and then months are required. You must have all three to have the most protection. People with HIV disease may need higher doses of vaccine to get adequate protection, especially if they have more advanced HIV disease. For these patients, it may be better to treat HIV for a while to strengthen the immune system before giving the vaccine so that it can produce enough HBV antibodies.
There are several good drugs that are effective in treating HBV. These drugs can suppress the virus to undetectable levels just as the HIV drugs do. Three of the drugs active against HBV are also good HIV drugs. This is very convenient for individuals with both HIV and HBV. These three drugs are lamivudine/3TC (Epivir), tenofovir (Viread) and emtricitibine/FTC (Emtriva). A combination product of tenofovir and emtricitibine called Truvada is approved for HIV disease and is also a great combo for HBV. Adefovir (Hepsera) has modest activity against HBV. Two other drugs, entecavir (Baraclude) and telbivudine (Tyzeka) have potent activity against HBV. Another product, alpha-interferon, also has activity against HBV. This drug with be discussed in more detail in the next article on hepatitis C. Some patients may be cured by the treatment by one or a combination of these drugs.
1) If you have HIV infection, talk to your medical provider about getting tested for HBV and then vaccination. If you do not have HIV but are at high risk for HBV infection (intravenous drug user, gay men, commercial sex workers), you may also want to consider getting vaccinated.
2) If you need the vaccine, be sure to get all three vaccinations
3) If you have HIV and HBV, make sure to treat your HIV and your HBV as well
4) Practice safe sex!!! If you inject drugs, use clean needles or learn to use bleach to clean your works. Seek medical treatment for substance abuse.
The next article will discuss hepatitis C infection with HIV disease.
By Dr. Keith Crawford, BDO HIV Expert
Dr. Crawford received a B.S degree in Biology from Cornell University and a B.S. in Pharmacy from Temple University. He completed a residency in clinical pharmacy at the National Institutes of Health. He earned a doctorate in Pharmacology from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland. He completed a post-doctoral fellowship at the National Institutes of Health, studying microbial biochemistry and genetics.
He is currently in the Department of Clinical Pharmacology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine where he develops clinical research studies to improve treatment of HIV infection. He is also on faculty at Howard University College of Medicine, in the Department of Pharmacology.