african american doctor and nursePsoriasis is a skin disease that causes scaling and swelling. Skin
cells grow deep in the skin and slowly rise to the surface. This process is
called cell turnover, and it takes about a month. With psoriasis, it can happen
in just a few days because the cells rise too fast and pile up on the surface.

Most psoriasis causes patches of thick, red skin with silvery
scales. These patches can itch or feel sore. They are often found on the elbows,
knees, other parts of the legs, scalp, lower back, face, palms, and soles of the
feet. But they can show up other places such as fingernails, toenails, genitals,
and inside the mouth.

Who Gets Psoriasis?

Anyone can get psoriasis, but it occurs more often in adults.
Sometimes there is a family history of psoriasis. Certain genes have been linked
to the disease. Men and women get psoriasis at about the same rate.

What Causes Psoriasis?

Psoriasis begins in the immune system, mainly with a type of white
blood cell called a T cell. T cells help protect the body against infection and
disease. With psoriasis, T cells are put into action by mistake. They become so
active that they set off other immune responses. This leads to swelling and fast
turnover of skin cells. People with psoriasis may notice that sometimes the skin
gets better and sometimes it gets worse. Things that can cause the skin to get
worse include:

  • Infections
  • Stress
  • Changes in weather that dry the skin
  • Certain medicines.

    How Is Psoriasis Diagnosed?

    Psoriasis can be hard to diagnose because it can look like other
    skin diseases. The doctor might need to look at a small skin sample under a

    How Is Psoriasis Treated?

    Treatment depends on:

  • How serious the disease is
  • The size of the psoriasis patches
  • The type of psoriasis
  • How the patient reacts to certain treatments.

    All treatments don’t work the same for everyone. Doctors may
    switch treatments if one doesn’t work, if there is a bad reaction, or if the
    treatment stops working.

    Topical Treatment:

    Treatments applied right on the skin (creams, ointments) may help.
    Treatments can:

  • Help reduce swelling and skin cell turnover
  • Suppress the immune system
  • Help the skin peel and unclog pores
  • Reduce cell turnover and swelling.

    Bath solutions and lotions may feel good, but they rarely make the
    skin better. They are often used along with stronger treatments.

    Light Therapy:

    Natural ultraviolet light from the sun and artificial ultraviolet
    light are used to treat psoriasis. One treatment, called PUVA, uses a
    combination of a drug that makes skin more sensitive to light and ultraviolet A

    Systemic Treatment:

    If the psoriasis is severe, doctors might prescribe drugs or give
    medicine through a shot. This is called systemic treatment. Antibiotics are not
    used to treat psoriasis unless bacteria make the psoriasis worse.

    Combination Therapy:

    When you combine topical (put on the skin), light, and systemic
    treatments, you can often use lower doses of each. Combination therapy can also
    lead to better results.

    What Are Some Promising Areas of Psoriasis Research?

    Doctors are learning more about psoriasis by studying:

  • Genes
  • New treatments that help skin not react to the immune system
  • Laser light treatment on thick patches.

    For More Information on Psoriasis and Other Related

    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and
    Skin Diseases (NIAMS)

    National Institutes of Health
    1 AMS
    Bethesda, MD 20892–3675
    Phone: 301–495–4484 or 877–22–NIAMS
    (226–4267) (free of charge)
    TTY: 301–565–2966
    E-mail: [email protected]


woman touching her face and looking in mirrorRosacea is a long-term disease that affects the skin and sometimes the eyes. Its symptoms include redness, pimples, and, in later stages, thicker skin. In most cases, rosacea only affects the face.

Who Gets Rosacea?

About 14 million people in the United States have rosacea. This disease is most common in:

  • Women (especially during menopause)
  • People with fair skin
  • Adults between the ages of 30 and 60.

    What Does Rosacea Look Like?

    Rosacea has many symptoms, including the following:

  • Frequent redness (flushing) of the face. Most redness is at the center of the face (forehead, nose, cheeks, and chin). There may also be a burning feeling and slight swelling.
  • Small red lines under the skin. These lines show up when blood vessels under the skin get larger. This area of the skin may be somewhat swollen, warm, and red.
  • Constant redness along with bumps on the skin. Sometimes the bumps have pus inside (pimples), but not always. Solid bumps on the skin may later become painful.
  • Inflamed eyes/eyelids.
  • A swollen nose. In some people (mostly men), the nose becomes red, larger, and bumpy.
  • Thicker skin. The skin on the forehead, chin, cheeks, or other areas can become thicker because of rosacea.

    How Are the Eyes Affected?

    Up to 50 percent of people who have rosacea get eye problems. Eyes can have redness, dryness, itching, burning, excess tears, and the feeling of having sand in the eye. The eyelids may become inflamed and swollen. The eyes may become sensitive to light, and the person may have blurred vision or some other kind of vision problem.

    What Causes Rosacea?

    Doctors don’t know the exact cause of rosacea. Some doctors think rosacea happens when blood vessels expand too easily, causing flushing. People who blush a lot may be more likely to get rosacea. It is also thought that people inherit the likelihood of getting the disease.

    Though not well-researched, some people say that one or more of these factors make their rosacea worse:

  • Heat (including hot baths)
  • Heavy exercise
  • Sunlight
  • Winds
  • Very cold temperatures
  • Hot or spicy foods and drinks
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Menopause
  • Emotional stress
  • Long-term use of steroids on the face.

    People with rosacea and pimples may think the pimples are caused by bacteria. But no one has found a clear link between rosacea and bacteria.

    Can Rosacea Be Cured?

    There is no cure for rosacea, but it can be treated and controlled. In time the skin may look better. A dermatologist (a doctor who works with diseases of the skin) often treats rosacea. There are several ways to treat rosacea.

    For skin:

  • Sometimes antibiotics can be put right on the skin. Other times, oral antibiotics can be used. The skin bumps may get better quickly, but redness and flushing are less likely to improve.
  • Small red lines can be treated with electrosurgery and laser surgery. For some people, laser surgery improves the skin without much scarring or damage.
  • Patients with a swollen, bumpy nose can have extra skin tissue taken off to make it smaller. Usually patients feel this process helps their appearance.
  • Some people find that green-tinted makeup is good for hiding the skin’s redness.

    For the eyes:

  • Most eye problems are treated with oral antibiotics.
  • People who get infections of the eyelids must clean them a lot. The doctor may say to scrub the eyelids gently with watered-down baby shampoo or an over-the-counter eyelid cleaner. After scrubbing, you should apply a warm (but not hot) compress a few times a day.
  • If needed, the doctor may prescribe steroid eye drops.

    What Can People With Rosacea Do to Help Themselves?

    You play a key role in taking care of your rosacea. Here are a few steps to take:

  • Keep a written record of when flareups happen. This can give you clues about what bothers your skin.
  • Use a sunscreen every day that protects against UVA and UVB rays. Make sure it has a sun-protecting factor (SPF) of 15 or higher.
  • Use a mild moisturizer if it helps. Don’t put irritating products on the face.
  • If your eyes have problems, follow your doctor’s treatment plan, and clean your eyelids as told.
  • Talk with a doctor if you feel sad or have other signs of depression. Some people with rosacea feel bad because of the way their skin looks.

    What Research Is Being Conducted to Help People With Rosacea?

    Research is being done on:

  • Ways to stop dry eyes and help other eye problems
  • Drugs that can help treat rosacea
  • Ways to reduce scarring after extra skin on the nose is removed.

    For More Information about Rosacea and Other Related Conditions:

    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
    National Institutes of Health
    1 AMS Circle
    Bethesda, MD 20892–3675
    Phone: 301–495–4484 or 877–22–NIAMS (226–4267) (free of charge)
    TTY: 301–565–2966
    Fax: 301–718–6366
    E-mail: [email protected]