Why Are You Sneezing?

A man holding tissue as he sneezes while lying in his bed

(BlackDoctor.org) — It’s getting to be that time of the year again, where seasonal changes have us sniffling and sneezing a little more often – for various reasons. Relief is all any of us want from a stuffy nose, hacking cough or aching must, and whether it’s seasonal allergies, a cold, or the flu makes a big difference in what we need to do to feel better.

Understanding the source of your particular symptoms is the key to getting the relief you need.

Why You Need To Know

Obviously, knowing what you’re dealing with helps you to get the right treatment. But in addition, not knowing can make you susceptible to other illness complications. For example, if you are prone to colds for a good part of the year, it’s possible that you are actually suffering from allergies. With proper treatment your allergy symptoms could be minimized or entirely eliminated. However, left unattended, your allergies could develop into sinusitis or ear infections.

In addition, it is important to distinguish between colds and flu because untreated flu can sometimes lead to complications such as bronchitis or pneumonia and can even be life threatening.

What Are The Differences?

While the symptoms described in each of the following categories are quite common and can be used as general indications, individual cases may vary. If you are unsure of your situation or symptoms persist, call your doctor for treatment recommendations.


Symptoms usually strike quickly and can include runny nose, sneezing, wheezing, or watery and itchy eyes. You might experience itching in the ear, nose and throat. Nasal discharges are clear, thin and watery. Allergies occur during different seasons depending on what you are allergic to and can last weeks or months.

Talk to your doctor about tests to determine the cause of your allergies and the proper treatment. Once you know the specific “allergens” (generally harmless substances that cause an allergic reaction), avoidance is the best preventative. When that’s not possible, short or long term relief can be provided with both over-the-counter and prescription drugs including antihistamines, decongestants, and corticosteroid nasal sprays. For chronic conditions, your doctor might recommend immunotherapy (allergy shots).


You can usually feel cold symptoms developing over a few days. Symptoms might be the same as those for allergies, but without itching in the ear, nose and throat. You could have a sore throat, cough, or mild fever. Nasal discharges are thin and clear at the outset but change to thick, yellow or green. Colds generally occur during the fall and winter and should clear up in 7 to 10 days.

You can achieve temporary relief of symptoms with over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants. If symptoms don’t clear up within 2 weeks, talk to your doctor. You can minimize the risk of catching a cold by washing your hands after contact with cold sufferers and any objects they may have touched. Try to avoid cold sufferers sneezing or coughing in your direction and don’t touch your nose or eyes with your fingers.


The onset of flu can be sudden and symptoms often include exhaustion, headache and severe aches and pains. Occasionally a stuffy nose, sneezing and sore throat are added to the mixture of symptoms. A cough is common and can become severe. High temperatures (102-104F) can last 3 – 4 days while a general weakness or fatigue can continue for 2 – 3 weeks.

See your doctor for antiviral medications to relieve flu symptoms. To help prevent the flu, talk to your doctor about vaccination with annual flu shots.


9 Health Issues That Arthritis Can Cause

Tired African American man bending over outdoorsIf you have rheumatoid arthritis (RA), you should be aware of other health problems that are associated with the autoimmune disorder.
Why the higher risks of certain illnesses? Doctors aren’t sure about all the exact reasons, but it may be caused by RA-related inflammation or RA treatments – or they may occur at higher rates for unknown reasons. But regardless of the exact cause, it’s important to note that most related conditions can be prevented or treated.

The top illnesses and symptoms you should be on the lookout for include:

Bone thinning

RA can cause bone thinning and osteoporosis (which increases the risk of bone fractures), as can the inflammation-fighting corticosteroids used to treat it.

In addition, people with RA often cut back on activity due to pain, which can accelerate loss of bone and muscle mass, says Guy Fiocco, MD, assistant professor of internal medicine at Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, in Temple.

What to do: Have regular bone-density scans and talk to your doctor about bone-strengthening medications and exercise. Also, get enough calcium and vitamin D, Dr. Fiocco says.

Heart disease and stroke

People with RA have about double the heart-disease risk as their same-age peers.

“Rheumatoid arthritis is considered equal to other [heart-disease] risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, increased lipids, smoking, and family history,” Dr. Fiocco says. “It’s at least as important as the other risk factors for premature heart disease and stroke.”

What to do: RA-related inflammation is thought to be the reason why, although some RA medications can contribute to the risk. People with RA should make an extra effort to eat heart-healthy food, manage other risk factors (like avoiding smoking), and monitor cholesterol and blood pressure.

Sjögren’s syndrome

Suddenly in the news because of Venus William’s recently disclosure that she suffers from the condition, Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease that attacks the tear and salivary glands, causing dry eyes and mouth. It can arise on its own or as an added complication of rheumatoid arthritis.

What to do:
Unfortunately, there’s no treatment for Sjögren’s, which can lead to vision problems and tooth decay because of the lack of saliva. Moisturizing eye drops, good dental hygiene, and drinking water can help prevent these problems. Prescription drugs such as cevimeline (Evoxac) and pilocarpine (Salagen) can increase the production of saliva and tears. In severe cases, minor surgery can relieve dryness in the eyes.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

“The one cancer that’s definitely been linked to RA is non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Dr. Fiocco says.

RA patients have a two to four times higher risk than people without RA. Other blood cancers, such as leukemia and other forms of lymphoma, as well as lung cancer and melanoma, may also be a problem. Not only is the disease itself a culprit, but some drugs are too.

In fact, methotrexate (Trexall) and antitumor necrosis factor drugs such as adalimumab (Humira), etanercept (Enbrel), and infliximab (Remicade) carry a warning about increased lymphoma risk. But the benefits may still outweigh the risk, given that the risk is low overall.

What to do: Ensure that you’re getting regular doctor check-ups and ask your doctor what more you can do to stay healthy.

Lung problems

Some 8% of people with RA develop interstitial lung disease, or scarring of the lungs, compared with only 1% to 2% of the general population, says Eric L. Matteson, MD, chair of rheumatology at the Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minn.

In addition to the joints, RA can attack the lungs and cause scarring. Over time, this can make breathing difficult. RA treatments such as methotrexate and glucocorticosteroids can increase the risk of interstitial lung disease.

People with RA may also develop inflammation in the lining of the lungs, or pleurisy, which can make breathing painful, and lung nodules, which can be mistaken for cancer.

What to do: If you are having difficulty breathing, talk to a doctor immediately.


RA drugs such as methotrexate, adalimumab (Humira), etanercept (Enbrel), and infliximab (Remicade) suppress the immune system, boosting the risk of infection. That’s on top of an already-increased risk due to the disease itself. “Just having rheumatoid arthritis approximately doubles your infection risk independent of treatment,” says Dr. Matteson.

One risk is tuberculosis (TB), although it is less common in the U.S. than in developing nations.

What to do: Doctors routinely perform a skin test to check for TB before starting a person on immune-suppressing drugs, Dr. Fiocco says. If the test is positive, the doctor will treat the infection first.


Not surprisingly, depression affects more people with RA—perhaps up to twice as many—than those who don’t have the condition. Having to cope with RA in addition to functional disability, loss of independence, and decrease in quality-of-life all contribute to depression, Dr. Fiocco says.

What to do: One small study showed that only 1 in 5 RA patients talk to their doctor about depression. If you have symptoms of depression, get help. According to Dr. Fiocco, with the newer [RA] medications, a lot more quality of life is being maintained these days.


RA can lead to anemia, which is a lack of red blood cells needed to transport oxygen in the body. RA inflammation can suppress the bone marrow that generates red blood cells.

“Anemia is directly related to the activity of the disease,” says Dr. Fiocco. “High levels of inflammation lead to greater degrees of anemia and these are closely correlated. Medication can also exacerbate the problem.”

What to do: If the anemia is due to inflammation, getting it under control will help, Dr. Matteson says. Drugs that spur red-blood-cell production can help too. And if you’re iron deficient, consider iron supplements, but keep in mind that highly active RA can inhibit iron absorption.

Gastrointestinal bleeding

Another RA complication is gastrointestinal problems, primarily bleeding in the digestive tract and ulcers. This can be due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), now available both over-the-counter (Advil or Aleve) and by prescription (Celebrex).

“The combination of NSAIDs plus steroids makes it even worse,” Dr. Fiocco says. GI bleeding can also cause or worsen anemia. If you’re taking a prescription NSAID, you should be monitored for this side effect.

What to do: If you’re taking an over-the-counter NSAID, stick to the recommended dosage and don’t take more than one NSAID, including aspirin, at a time.