What Is Diabetic Retinopathy?

A man with glasses rubbing his eyes(BlackDoctor) — Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes and a leading cause of
blindness. It occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels inside the
retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. A healthy retina is
necessary for good vision.

If you have diabetic retinopathy, at first you may notice no changes to your
vision. But over time, diabetic retinopathy can get worse and cause vision loss.
Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes.

Image of the eye


What are the stages of diabetic retinopathy?

Diabetic retinopathy has four stages:

  1. Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy. At this earliest stage,
    microaneurysms occur. They are small areas of balloon-like swelling in the
    retina’s tiny blood vessels.
  • Moderate Nonproliferative Retinopathy. As the disease progresses,
    some blood vessels that nourish the retina are blocked.


  • Severe Nonproliferative Retinopathy. Many more blood vessels are
    blocked, depriving several areas of the retina with their blood supply. These
    areas of the retina send signals to the body to grow new blood vessels for
  • Proliferative Retinopathy. At this advanced stage, the signals sent by
    the retina for nourishment trigger the growth of new blood vessels. This
    condition is called proliferative retinopathy. These new blood vessels are
    abnormal and fragile. They grow along the retina and along the surface of the
    clear, vitreous gel that fills the inside of the eye.By themselves, these blood vessels do not cause symptoms or vision loss.
    However, they have thin, fragile walls. If they leak blood, severe vision loss
    and even blindness can result.


Who is at risk for diabetic retinopathy?

All people with diabetes–both type 1 and type 2–are at risk. That’s why
everyone with diabetes should get a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once
a year. Between 40 to 45 percent of Americans diagnosed with diabetes have some
stage of diabetic retinopathy. If you have diabetic retinopathy, your doctor can
recommend treatment to help prevent its progression.

During pregnancy, diabetic retinopathy may be a problem for women with
diabetes. To protect vision, every pregnant woman with diabetes should
have a comprehensive dilated eye exam as soon as possible. Your doctor may
recommend additional exams during your pregnancy.


How does diabetic retinopathy cause vision loss?

Blood vessels damaged from diabetic retinopathy can cause vision loss in two

  1. Fragile, abnormal blood vessels can develop and leak blood into the center
    of the eye, blurring vision. This is proliferative retinopathy and is the
    fourth and most advanced stage of the disease.
  • Fluid can leak into the center of the macula, the part of the eye where
    sharp, straight-ahead vision occurs. The fluid makes the macula swell, blurring
    vision. This condition is called macular edema. It can occur at any stage
    of diabetic retinopathy, although it is more likely to occur as the disease
    progresses. About half of the people with proliferative retinopathy also have
    macular edema.



Does diabetic retinopathy have any symptoms?

Diabetic retinopathy often has no early warning signs. Don’t wait for
. Be sure to have a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a


What are the symptoms of proliferative retinopathy if
bleeding occurs?

At first, you will see a few specks of blood, or spots, “floating” in your
vision. If spots occur, see your eye care professional as soon as possible. You
may need treatment before more serious bleeding occurs. Hemorrhages tend to
happen more than once, often during sleep.

Sometimes, without treatment, the spots clear, and you will see better.
However, bleeding can reoccur and cause severely blurred vision. You need to be
examined by your eye care professional at the first sign of blurred vision,
before more bleeding occurs.

If left untreated, proliferative retinopathy can cause severe vision loss and
even blindness. Also, the earlier you receive treatment, the more likely
treatment will be effective.


How are macular edema and diabetic retinopathy

Macular edema and diabetic retinopathy are detected during a comprehensive
eye exam that includes:

  • Visual acuity test. This eye chart test measures how well you see at
    various distances.
  • Dilated eye exam. Drops are placed in your eyes to widen, or dilate,
    the pupils. Your eye care professional uses a special magnifying lens to examine
    your retina and optic nerve for signs of damage and other eye problems. After
    the exam, your close-up vision may remain blurred for several hours.


  • Tonometry. An instrument measures the pressure inside the eye.
    Numbing drops may be applied to your eye for this test.


Your eye care professional checks your retina for early signs of the disease,

  • Leaking blood vessels.
  • Retinal swelling (macular edema).
  • Pale, fatty deposits on the retina–signs of leaking blood vessels.
  • Damaged nerve tissue.
  • Any changes to the blood vessels.


If your eye care professional believes you need treatment for macular edema,
he or she may suggest a fluorescein angiogram. In this test, a special
dye is injected into your arm. Pictures are taken as the dye passes through the
blood vessels in your retina. The test allows your eye care professional to
identify any leaking blood vessels and recommend treatment.


How is a macular edema treated?

Macular edema is treated with laser surgery. This procedure is called focal
laser treatment. Your doctor places up to several hundred small laser burns in
the areas of retinal leakage surrounding the macula. These burns slow the
leakage of fluid and reduce the amount of fluid in the retina. The surgery is
usually completed in one session. Further treatment may be needed.

A patient may need focal laser surgery more than once to control the leaking
fluid. If you have macular edema in both eyes and require laser surgery,
generally only one eye will be treated at a time, usually several weeks

Focal laser treatment stabilizes vision. In fact, focal laser treatment
reduces the risk of vision loss by 50 percent. In a small number of cases, if
vision is lost, it can be improved. Contact your


Ladies only: Have you ever cheated on a significant other?

Black Women And Fibroids

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fibroids are the most common growths in a woman’s reproductive system. Many women with fibroids have no symptoms at all, while others have symptoms ranging from heavy bleeding and pain to incontinence or infertility. These information pages explain what fibroids are, how they can affect your health and what your options are for treatment. For more information on heavy bleeding orhysterectomy, visit our pages on these topics.


What are fibroids?

Fibroids are tumours that grow in the uterus (womb). They are benign, which
means they are not cancerous, and are made up of muscle fibers. Fibroids can be
as small as a pea and can grow as large as a melon. It is estimated that 20-50%
of women have, or will have, fibroids at some time in their lives. They are rare
in women under the age of 20, most common in women in their 30s and 40s, and
tend to shrink after the menopause.

Although the exact cause of fibroids is unknown, they seem to be influenced
by oestrogen. This would explain why they appear during a woman’s middle years
(when oestrogen levels are high) and stop growing after the menopause (when
oestrogen levels drop).

According to US studies, fibroids occur up to nine times more often in black
women than in white women, and tend to appear earlier. The reason for this is
unclear. Also women who weigh over 70kg may be more likely to have fibroids.
This is thought to be due to higher levels of oestrogen in heavier women.

In the past, the contraceptive pill was thought to increase the risk of
fibroids, but that was when the pill contained higher levels of oestrogen than
it does today. Some studies suggest that the newer combined pill (oestrogen and
progestogen) and the mini pill (progestogen only) may actually help prevent or
slow the growth of fibroids.

Types of fibroids

Fibroids are categorised by where they grow in the uterus:

Intramural — these grow in the wall of the womb and are the
most common type of fibroid.

Subserous— these fibroids grow from the outer layer of the
womb wall and sometimes grow on stalks (called pedunculated fibroids). Subserous
fibroids can grow to be very large.

Submucous — submucous fibroids develop in the muscle
underneath the inner lining of the womb. They grow into the womb and can also
grow on stalks which, if long enough, can hang through the cervix.

Cervical — cervical fibroids grow in the wall of the cervix
(neck of the womb) and are difficult to remove without damaging the surrounding

If you have fibroids, you may have one or many. You may also have one type of
fibroid or a number of different types.


As the cause of fibroids is still unknown, there are no clear guidelines for
preventing them. However, there are some things you could do that may help
reduce your risk:

• Keep your weight in check. This will minimize estrogen
levels in your body.

• Eat green vegetables and fruit, and avoid red meat. An
Italian study found that women who eat little meat but a lot of green vegetables
and fruit seem to be less likely to develop fibroids than women who eat a lot of
red meat and few vegetables.

• Some studies suggest the combined pill may protect against
fibroids by keeping hormone levels from peaking and falling. The pill comes with
its own set of side effects, however, so talk to your doctor about whether it’s
right for you.


It is estimated that 75% of women with fibroids do not have symptoms,
therefore many women don’t know they have fibroids. Whether or not you have
symptoms depends on the size of the fibroids and where they are in your womb.
This also affects the types of symptoms you are likely to have. For example, a
small fibroid in the wall of your womb probably won’t cause any problems,
whereas a large fibroid growing outward from your womb might press against your
bladder, causing bladder problems.

The most common symptom of fibroids is heavy menstrual bleeding. Other
symptoms include abdominal pain or pressure, changes in bladder and bowel
patterns and, in some cases, infertility.

Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)

Heavy bleeding may involve flooding (a sudden gush of blood), long periods or
passing large clots of blood. Heavy bleeding is not always due to fibroids, but
when it is, it is usually associated with fibroids that grow into the womb
(submucous). Although it is unclear exactly why fibroids cause bleeding, it may
be that they stretch the lining of the womb, creating more lining to be shed
during a period.

Heavy bleeding can be distressing and can make every day activities
difficult. You will need to use extra sanitary protection and will probably need
to change towels or tampons frequently. Some women with heavy bleeding feel they
need to stay near a toilet during their periods. This can greatly restrict
activity and may be frustrating or tiring.

Anaemia (iron deficiency)

Some women with fibroids and heavy bleeding develop anaemia as a result of
blood loss. Anaemia can make you feel weak, dizzy and tired. If blood tests show
that you have anaemia, ask your doctor about supplements or changes in your diet
that might help. Foods such as liver, leafy green vegetables, dried fruit and
even red wine can help boost your iron levels.

Pain and pressure

Some women with fibroids experience painful periods, dull aches in their
thighs, back pain or constant pressure in the abdominal area that feels like
bloating or fullness.

Pain during your period may be due to large clots of blood pushing through
your cervix. Cramps could also be caused by the womb trying to force out a
submucous fibroid that is growing on a stalk in the cavity of the womb.

Large fibroids can make the womb big and bulky, which can lead to lower back
pain or pelvic discomfort. Some women with fibroids feel a dull ache in their
thighs or develop varicose veins in their legs. This happens when fibroids
become so large they press on nerves and blood vessels that extend to the

Occasionally, fibroids can cause sudden severe pain in the pelvic area or
lower back. This may be due to a fibroid on a stalk (pedunculated) that has
become twisted. This kinks the blood vessels in the stalk and cuts off the blood
supply to the fibroid. If you feel sudden severe pain and also have a fever or
feel sick, you should see your doctor. The fibroid may need to be removed or
your doctor may recommend bed rest and painkillers until the pain stops on its

Pain during sex

Fibroids that press on the cervix or hang through the cervix into the vagina
can make penetrative sex painful and can also cause bleeding during sex.