DIETING FOR BLACK WOMEN

Posted By ,August 26, 2010

green apple wrapped in a tape measureAccording to current statistics, between 50 and 66% of African American women can be classified as being “overweight”. African American women suffer from obesity at an alarmingly disproportionate rate when compared to women of other races.

We know that we live in a culture that equates thinness with beauty, success, and happiness. Thus, the pressure for women to change their weight is enormous, and this is usually where the desire to diet comes in to play. It’s too bad that the first information these women usually run into is ‘magic’ diets and pills promoted by company’s whose major concern is their next dollar, not if someone actually loses weight or not. In fact, by using the typical calorie reduced diets, women are inevitably going to do these over and over again because in the process have trained their bodies to become better at storing fat. This of course leads to more profits for the diet companies.

Typical ‘crash diets’ fight your body’s natural reaction to starvation. Lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme in the body that promotes fat storage and it increases tremendously when someone is not taking in enough food. The lowest energy level that a female who is 90 years old, bedridden, and under 5 feet tall needs, is still approximately 1167 calories per day! Concentration camps during wars have shown us that humans need a minimum of 800-900 calories for sheer survival for any extended period of time. An average meal is around 500-600 calories so if someone skips breakfast, has a diet pop and salad for lunch, and a small dinner you can see how they could run dangerously close to these levels. A person’s metabolism is the complex of chemical and physical processes involved in the maintenance of life, and the rate at which your body uses substances (i.e. burns calories). When a human drastically reduces their food intake, their metabolism lowers, making it harder and harder to lose weight. This makes sense from a survival point of view, because if it continued at the same rate you would literally burn up! This is how people can end up ‘yo-yo’ dieting, because the body just gets better and better at storing energy. Cut calories, metabolism lowers; eat again (even if equal amount eaten before the dieting), and weight goes up. Usually higher than where they started. Of course the psychological damage diets can do is immense, and can take up another whole column, so for now we’ll just look at the physical.
When fuel is scarce, the body first uses up stored sugar in the liver and muscles. This stored sugar is called glycogen. Each glycogen is stored with a molecule of water, and this makes it relatively heavy. When they are metabolized, this is where one might see initial weight loss. During the first five to seven days of inadequate calorie intake, skeletal muscle protein is also broken down for energy. It is lost at approximately 360g (0.8 lb) lean tissue per day, and drops to a rate of 96g per day after those first five to seven days. This is not fat tissue. Adipose (fat) tissue will eventually be used for energy at a much lower rate of 18g per day. The body then shifts back and forth using muscle and fat tissue alternately. The last tissue to go would be the intercostal muscles (the muscle between the ribs) necessary for respiration. The body also adapts to starvation by reducing activity, increasing one’s need for sleep, and lowering body temperature.

 

If someone really needs to lose weight to reduce their risk of heart disease or diabetes, for example, then how should they do it? Well, the answer is not magic, but it works with the body not against it and involves commitment and education.

A breakfast that includes whole wheat toast with peanut butter, a glass of milk, and a piece of fruit will last a lot longer than a bowl of cereal with a glass of juice. (The first one has fiber and more protein). The second thing that raises one’s metabolic rate is the increase in muscle tissue. Good old exercise. Initially, someone may even gain a few pounds or stay at the same weight while doing this.

Physical exercise is not a regular part of the lifestyle of many African American women. Walking can help make your heart and lungs function more efficiently, help you lose weight, sleep better, and reduce stress. You should try to walk four times a week for at least thirty minutes each time.

The best way to do this is to decrease the fat intake in our diet (butter, oils, margarine, deep fried foods, pastries, chips, nuts, bologna, etc.). Notice, I said decrease, not eliminate. It is still okay to enjoy these foods once in awhile as long as one is eating a well-balanced, low-fat diet most of the time. The other improvement to make in one’s diet would be an increase in fiber. Fiber is a non-digestible plant component found in foods such as brown rice, whole grain breads, bran and oat cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Fiber helps with digestion and elimination and also helps to fill a person up without adding too many calories.

It is advisable that you to drink six to eight glasses of water daily (given that you have no other medical conditions). Water is important in body heat regulation, maintenance of blood volume, helps you eliminate wastes and acts as an appetite suppressant.

Eat Healthy and Stay Fit For Life

Eat Healthy And Stay Fit For Life

Photo of a family shopping for vegetables at an open air market.
A balanced diet and regular physical activity are the building blocks of good health. Poor eating habits and too little physical activity can lead to overweight and related health problems. By eating right and being active, you can stay at or reach a healthy weight. Do it for yourself and your family!

What is a healthy diet?

 

Photo of a woman eating a salad.

Photo of family enjoying a picnic on the grass.The basis of a healthy diet is eating a wide variety of foods. Every day, you should try to eat:*

  • 6 to 11 servings of bread, cereal, rice, or pasta. One serving equals one slice of bread, about 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal, or 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, or pasta.
  • 3 to 5 servings of vegetables. One serving equals 1 cup of raw leafy vegetables, or 1/2 cup of other vegetables, cooked or raw.
  • 2 to 4 servings of fruit. One serving equals one medium apple, banana, or orange; 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit; or 3/4 cup of fruit juice.
  • 2 to 3 servings of milk, yogurt, or cheese. One serving equals 1 cup of milk or yogurt, 1 1/2 ounces of natural cheese (such as Cheddar), or 2 ounces of processed cheese (such as American). Choose low-fat or fat-free products most often.
  • 2 to 3 servings of meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, or nuts. One serving equals 2 to 3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry without skin, or fish. You should eat no more than 5 to 7 ounces per day. One half cup of cooked dry beans, one egg, or 1/2 cup of tofu counts as 1 ounce of meat. Two tablespoons of peanut butter or 1/3 cup of nuts counts as 1 ounce of lean meat.

The larger number of servings is for active men. Eat a smaller number of servings if you are a woman, inactive, or trying to lose weight.

* Servings and serving sizes are from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Department of Health and Human Services Food Guide Pyramid

You can not always measure your food. Here are some ways to help you estimate serving sizes.

Illustration of a scoop of ice cream.1/2 cup of rice or pasta = size of ice cream scoop

Illustration of a baseball.1 cup of salad greens = size of a baseball

Illustration of a lightbulb.1/2 cup of chopped fruit or vegetables = size of a lightbulb

Illustration of four dice.1 1/2 ounces of cheese = size of four dice

Illustration of a deck of cards.3 ounces of meat or fish = size of a deck of cards or cassette tape

Illustration of a ping pong ball.2 tablespoons peanut butter = size of a ping pong ball

back to top

Tips for healthy eating

 

Photo of a woman shopping for vegetables in a grocery store.

  • Eat breakfast every day. People who eat breakfast are less likely to overeat later in the day. Breakfast also gives you energy and helps you think and learn.
  • Choose whole grains more often. Try whole wheat breads and pastas, oatmeal, brown rice, or bulgur.
  • Select a mix of colorful vegetables each day. Different colored vegetables provide different nutrients. Choose dark, leafy greens such as kale, collards, and mustard greens, and r