Study: Only 25% Of Americans With HIV Are Receiving Ongoing Treatment

prescription pills spilled over(BlackDoctor.org) — Nearly three-quarters of Americans with HIV don’t have their infection under control. That’s in large part because they may not know they have HIV or because they aren’t taking drugs that suppress the virus, according to a new study from the CDC.

The study is published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. It is being released in advance of World AIDS Day, Thursday, Dec. 1.

The report reveals that 1.2 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, but only 28% take drugs to keep the amount of the virus in their bodies low.

A low “viral load” helps people with HIV stay healthy and reduces the chance they’ll transmit the virus to others. Untreated HIV infection can lead to AIDS.

The virus can be suppressed by antiretroviral drugs, sometimes for decades.

But the study’s authors say that one in five people who are infected with HIV do not know it. Of those who are aware of their HIV-positive status, slightly more than half receive ongoing treatment.

Testing and Treatment for HIV Lags in U.S.

“The HIV crisis in America is far from over,” Jonathan Mermin, MD, director of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the CDC in Atlanta, said in a news briefing.

“Closing the gaps in testing, care, and treatment will all be essential to slowing or reversing the U.S. AIDS epidemic,” he says.

Many people drop out of treatment because they struggle to afford health insurance or medication, or because they have mental health or substance abuse problems that make it difficult for them to take care of themselves, Mermin says.

The good news is that regular medical care and antiretroviral drugs work for most people with HIV.

More than three-quarters of those on regular drug regimens had suppressed the amount of virus circulating in their blood.

A previous study has shown that when people with HIV start treatment early and keep their viral loads low, they are 96% less likely to infect their partners.

“Treatment for HIV can prevent spread of HIV to others,” says CDC Director Thomas Frieden, MD, MPH.

“We have substantial work ahead to fully realize the potential benefit of treatment in the U.S.,” he says.

Racial Gaps in HIV

The study also found racial differences in HIV care.

Compared to whites, African-Americans and Hispanics were less likely to get antiretroviral drugs, and even if they were prescribed the medications, were less likely to achieve low viral loads.

The report also found that many people who are HIV-positive do not get information about how to prevent the spread of the disease to others.

Only about half of heterosexual men and women with HIV are counseled about precautions they should take to keep from infecting others, while only 39% of gay men with HIV get that information.

To help stem the tide of new infections, the CDC also launched a new awareness campaign aimed at gay and bisexual African-American men, who account for nearly one-quarter of all new HIV infections in this country.

The campaign, “Testing Makes Us Stronger,” will encourage these men to learn their HIV status.

“The need for this new campaign could not be clearer,” says Kevin Fenton, MD, director of the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and Tuberculosis Prevention, at the CDC.

He points to a recent 21-city study that found that nearly two-thirds of gay and bisexual African-American men who tested positive for HIV did not know they were infected.

The CDC recommends that all Americans be tested for HIV at least once during their lifetimes.

Those at high risk, such as those who have more than one sex partner, inject drugs, or are men who have sex with men, should be tested more frequently — at least once a year.

How To Recognize & Treat AIDS Wasting Syndrome

A man's feet on a scale(BlackDoctor.org) — AIDS wasting syndrome is the involuntary loss of more than 10% of body weight, plus more than 30 days of either diarrhea, weakness and/or fever. Wasting is linked to disease progression and death. Losing just 5% of body weight can have the same negative effects.

Wasting is still an ongoing problem for people with AIDS, even people whose HIV is controlled by medications.

What Causes AIDS Wasting?

Several factors contribute to AIDS wasting:

• Low food intake. Low appetite is common with HIV. Also, some AIDS drugs have to be taken with an empty stomach, or with a meal. It can be difficult for some people with AIDS to eat when they’re hungry. Drug side effects such as nausea, changes in the sense of taste, or tingling around the mouth also decrease appetite. Also, opportunistic infections in the mouth or throat can make it painful to eat. Infections in the gut can make people feel full after eating just a little food. Finally, lack of money or energy may make it difficult to shop for food or prepare meals.

• Poor nutrient absorption. Healthy people absorb nutrients through the small intestine. In people with HIV disease, several infections (including parasites) can interfere with this process. HIV may directly affect the intestinal lining and reduce nutrient absorption. Diarrhea causes loss of calories and nutrients.

• Altered metabolism. Food processing and protein building are affected by HIV disease. Even before any symptoms show up, you need more energy. This might be caused by the increased activity of the immune system. People with HIV need more calories just to maintain their body weight.

Hormone levels can affect the metabolism. HIV seems to change some hormone levels. Also, cytokines play a role in wasting. Cytokines are proteins that produce inflammation to help the body fight infections. People with HIV have very high levels of cytokines. This makes the body produce more fats and sugars, but less protein.

Unfortunately, these factors can work together to create a “downward spiral.” For example, infections may increase the body’s energy requirements. At the same time, they can interfere with nutrient absorption and cause fatigue. This can reduce appetite and make people less able to shop for or cook their meals. They eat less, which accelerates the process.

How Is Wasting Treated?

There is no standard treatment for AIDS wasting. However, successful antiretroviral treatment usually leads to healthy weight gain. Treatments for wasting deal with each of the causes mentioned above.

• Reducing nausea and vomiting helps increase food intake. Also, appetite stimulants including Megace and Marinol have been used. Megace, unfortunately, is associated with increases in body fat. Marinol (dronabinol) is sometimes used to increase appetite. It is a synthetic form of a substance found in marijuana. Medications that fight nausea can also help.
AIDS activists have long urged the legalization of marijuana. It reduces nausea and stimulates the appetite. In the late 1990s, several states legalized the medical use of marijuana. See Fact Sheet 731 for more information on marijuana.

• Treating diarrhea and opportunistic infections in the intestines helps alleviate poor nutrient absorption. There has been a lot of progress in this area. However, two parasitic infections — cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis — are still extremely difficult to treat.

Another approach is the use of nutritional supplements that have been specifically designed to provide easy-to-absorb nutrients. However, they have not been carefully studied and contain a lot of sugar. Consult with your health care provider before using nutritional supplements. Also, remember that supplements should be used in addition to a balanced diet.

• Treating changes in metabolism. Hormone treatments are being examined. Human growth hormone (Serostim) increases weight and lean body mass, while decreasing fat mass. However, it is extremely expensive, can cause serious side effects, and can cost over $40,000 per year. Some nutritional experts believe it can be effective at doses lower than the FDA-approved dose.

Testosterone and anabolic (muscle building) agents like oxandrolone or nandrolone might also help treat wasting. They have been studied alone and in combination with exercise.

Progressive resistance training (PRT) is a form of exercise using small weights. A recent study found that PRT gave similar results to oxandrolone (an anabolic steroid) in increasing lean body mass. PRT was also more effective than oxandrolone in increasing physical functioning. It is also less expensive.

Stay Aware Of Your Weight

AIDS wasting is not well understood. However, it is clear that people with HIV disease need to avoid the loss of lean body mass. Various treatments for wasting are being studied.

Be sure to monitor your weight. Maintain your intake of nutritious foods even if your appetite is low. Get treatment right away for serious diarrhea or any infection of your digestive system, as these might cause problems with the absorption of nutrients.