People with the lung disease COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) who overdo it on bacon, salami, and other cured meats may be at greater risk for experiencing a flare-up that lands them back in the hospital.
COPD is the umbrella term for chronic lung diseases including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. People with COPD often experience a worsening of their breathlessness and other symptoms (exacerbations) throughout the course of their disease. These flare-ups can result in hospital stays.
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New research in the European Respiratory Journal suggests that people with COPD who ate more than one slice of ham or the equivalent of another type of cured meat each day were more likely to have a flare-up that sends them back to the hospital, when compared with their counterparts who did not eat as much cured meat.
Nitrates and nitrites are added to cured meats to enhance their flavor and color, and to extend their shelf life. Nitrates can be converted in the body to nitrites, which have been linked to increased cancer risk in animals. Some studies have also linked nitrites to an increased risk of stomach cancer in humans, but the evidence has not been conclusive.
Previous studies have suggested that eating cured meat may make a person more likely to develop COPD in the first place. The new study, however, shows it may also worsen disease in people who already have it.
Exactly how it may do so is unclear. The study authors suggest nitrites can damage lung tissue. “Our findings provide the first evidence that an excessive intake of cured meat can worsen progression of COPD,” says researcher Judith Garcia-Aymerich, MD, of the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, Spain. “We believe that adherence to current dietary guidelines, which recommend a moderate or occasional intake of cured meats, will be sufficient in order to avoid this excess of risk.”