Smog Tied To Increased Hypertension & Diabetes Risks In Black Women

smoke pollution in sky

( — Air pollution may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure in black American women, a new study suggests.

Previous research has shown that air pollution boosts the chances of acute cardiovascular events such as stroke and heart attack, but it hasn’t been known whether it also increases the likelihood of chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

In this study, researchers examined the link between these chronic illnesses and exposure to nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, also known as particle pollution. Nitrogen oxides are indicators of traffic-related air pollution.

The study included about 4,000 black women living in Los Angeles who were followed from 1995 to 2005. During that time, 531 new cases of hypertension and 183 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in the women, said study leader Patricia Coogan, an associate professor of epidemiology at the Boston University School of Public Health and the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, and colleagues.

For each increase of 12 parts per billion (ppb) in exposure to nitrogen oxides, there was a 24 percent rise in the risk of diabetes and an 11 percent rise in the risk of hypertension. Exposure to particle pollution also appeared to increase the risk for having both diseases, but the evidence for this was weaker than for nitrogen oxides.

The study was released online Jan. 4 in advance of publication in an upcoming print issue of the journal Circulation.

Two previous studies suggested that traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of diabetes, but those studies did not include black Americans.

“A link between air pollution and the risks of diabetes and hypertension is of particular importance to African American women, because the incidence of both conditions is almost twice as high in African American women as in white women,” Coogan said in a Boston Medical Center news release. She added that black Americans also may tend to live in more highly polluted areas than white Americans.

“In addition, even a modest effect of air pollutants on the risks of hypertension and diabetes will have significant public health impact due to the high incidence of these conditions and the ubiquity of exposure to air pollution,” Coogan stated in the news release.


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The No-Gym Workout

woman doing crunches on workout ballLet’s face it: the gym isn’t for everybody. For some it’s the cost that hinders its appeal, and for others it’s the atmosphere. But the good news is that you don’t need a health club membership to get in shape. There are a lot of exercises you can do around your house or in your neighborhood that don’t require a gym for a good workout.

Workout Guidelines for Fitness

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) recommends that adults include a certain amount of physical exercise in their weekly routine as one means of staying healthy.

Keep in mind that all of the regular walking, standing and lifting you normally do in your daily life does not constitute a workout, according to HHS. Even including some short-burst exertions like climbing a few flights of stairs or lifting a heavy box or two won’t help improve your overall health.

Instead, you should engage in what the HHS describes as health-enhancing activities—exercises and workouts that go beyond your normal daily activities. The specific recommendations for adults involve:

• At least 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic workouts, such as brisk walking, or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic workouts like running or jogging

• For even better results, about 5 hours a week of moderate workouts or 2 hours and 30 minutes of vigorous workouts

• On top of these aerobic activities, strength-training workouts at least twice a week that involve all major muscle groups

Spread out these exercises throughout the week, mixing up your routine often to keep your body guessing and work out different muscle sets at different intensities.

Work Out at Home: How To Skip the Gym

• Get up and move. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be as simple as marching in place while you watch television. You also can take a long, quick-paced walk through your neighborhood.

• Jumping jacks. People ready to pursue a high-intensity aerobic workout can get more advanced. Biking or swimming also are good activities, but…