For Women, Laughter Is a Just Reward
The path to a good belly laugh may be strikingly different between women and
New research has found that men’s and women’s brains process humor in
different ways, and that personality types may also play a distinctive role in
how people perceive things as funny or not.
When shown a funny cartoon, women showed more activation in the parts of the
brain involved with feelings of reward, as well as language processing and
The findings, appearing in this week’s issue of the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences, have implications that are no laughing
“It’s been well-documented that women tend to experience symptoms of
depression twice as much as men,” said Eiman Azim, a doctoral student in
neuroscience at Harvard University who conducted the study while an
undergraduate student at Stanford University. “This type of questioning might
help us understand why emotive processing in women is different, and why they
experience depression differently.”
The research may also one day help individuals with cataplexy, a condition in
which a sudden loss of motor control is set off by strong emotions, especially
humor, the researchers said.
Both the brain’s prefrontal cortex (important for language processing and
memory) and the mesolimbic reward center are known to be activated by humor.
While some past studies had shown gender differences in how humor is used and
appreciated, no one has yet looked at gender-based differences in how the brain
responds to humor.
For this study, 10 females and 10 males underwent functional magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) while viewing 70 black-and-white cartoons. They were
asked to rate each cartoon on a “funny scale,” with 10 being the highest
The behavioral responses to the cartoons, including reaction times, were
essentially equivalent in the two groups. “It’s not that they were getting
something different out of the humor, or enjoying it differently,” Azim
Many of the same brain regions were also used.
But there were differences, and the differences were surprising. During funny
cartoons, women showed greater activation in the prefrontal cortex and the
nucleus accumbens (NAcc), which is part of the mesolimbic reward center.
“It was surprising to find it in the two regions where we found it, but
finding differences was not surprising,” Azim said. “Men’s and women’s brains
have evolved to process cognitive and emotive information somewhat differently.
Looking at humor starts to reveal subtle differences in processing
The NAcc finding was the most surprising. This region is activated in all
kinds of rewards, such as when you win at gambling or take cocaine.
“Females tended to activate this region more than men, and men tended to
inactivate it during unfunny cartoons,” Azim said.
Women also had more activation the funnier the cartoon was, while men tended
to deactivate the center when they encountered an unfunny cartoon.
What does this mean?
“Females seem to be anticipating the reward less than men, and have greater
activation when they get it,” Azim explained.
If women’s reward centers are more sensitive to stimuli, this may help
explain the higher rate of depression among women, Azim said.
“It’s a hypothesis, and more studies need to be done to verify it,” Azim
cautioned. “It indicates that there is a distinct strategy in ways men and women
process humor, even though they are enjoying it the same.”
A related study in the same issue of the journal found that personality
traits, including extroversion and introversion, also have a bearing on how
humor is processed.
Visit Rx Laughter to get the latest on research into
laughter and its relation to better health.
SOURCES: Eiman Azim, doctoral student, neuroscience, Harvard
University, Boston; Nov. 7-11, 2005, Proceedings of the National Academies of
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