In a recent study of transgender individuals with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, researchers found that those with diabetes on hormones for gender confirmation had increased risks associated with diabetes.
Triglycerides tended to be high in transgender women, most likely due to diabetes and the use of estrogens.
In addition, LDL ‘bad’ cholesterol was higher, and HDL or ‘good’ cholesterol was lower in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
They also found that individuals with diabetes had low vitamin D levels, which is needed to prevent osteoporosis.
Transgender women with T2D also tend to be obese, requiring intensive weight loss management.
The following guidelines can help to reduce the diet-related risk factors associated with diabetes and GAHT:
- Limit saturated fat to less than 10% of calories per day. That’s 22 grams of saturated fat per day for a 2,000-calorie diet.
- Limit sodium intake to less than 2,300mg per day—the equivalent of one teaspoon of table salt.
- Limit added sugars to less than 10% of calories per day. That’s 200 calories, or about 12 teaspoons, for a 2,000-calorie diet.
- Limit alcoholic beverages (if consumed) to 2 drinks or less a day for men (male-bodied) and one drink or less a day for women (female-bodied). One drink equals:12 ounces of regular beer; 8 ounces of malt liquor; 5 ounces of red or white wine; 1.5 ounces or a “shot” of 80-proof distilled spirits or liquor.
- Increase fiber to a minimum of 14 grams per 1,000 calories – or about 28 grams per day for female-bodied and 34 grams of fiber per day for male-bodied.
Are you looking for more information on healthy eating to prevent or manage diabetes while on GAHT?
A registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) can help. To find an RDN near you, use the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics online Find an Expert service.