many government policies, such as mass incarceration, counterproductive welfare reform, zero tolerance, and the school-to-prison pipeline, which have played a major role in destabilizing the black family in America.
Some studies report outcomes related to the potential benefits of greater male involvement for maternal and newborn health, which includes improved maternal mental health, increased breastfeeding, timely immunizations, reduce childhood illness, as well as a positive impact on men’s health.
Although there has been increasing recognition of the need to include men in maternal and newborn health services, since the mid-1990s actual progress towards engaging men in maternal and child health has been a slowly developing process.
Most maternal and child health programs seek to address the health needs of women and children by engaging and educating pregnant women and mothers. This focus on women, and a tendency to think about family planning, pregnancy, childbirth and child health as “women’s business,” has often led to men being excluded from spaces and services in which they could learn more about reproductive, maternal and child health.
The role and impact of fatherhood programs have become more evident. It is well known that innovations in practice often begin at the practitioner level. It takes several years before research catches up with new practices and begins to document successes and failures.
As a result, individual agencies can serve as informal laboratories for innovation generating data to support policy recommendations, create a new